Table of Content

    20 August 2022, Volume 30 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Optimal Decision-making Model of Environmental Pollution Group Events Considering Information Search
    LIU De-hai, ZHAO Yue, ZHANG Xu
    2022, 30 (8):  1-11.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1785
    Abstract ( 295 )   PDF (2543KB) ( 950 )   Save
    With the advent of “user-operated media” era, how governments deal with the social crisis is a serious challenge. Environmental pollution group event is a prominent type of social crisis, generally known as “Not-In-My-Back-Yard”. As the information dominant party, the government fully understands the possible impact of the project on the local residents, but maybe block the key information for the implementation, which can lead to serious information asymmetry. Once the information is leaked, the environmental group events will break out likely. With the rapid development of information technology, especially the rise of user-operated-media communication, information channels become increasingly diversified. Facing the information asymmetry, the local residents can be easy to search, browse and acquire relevant knowledge. The search results will have an important impact on the occurrence and development of environmental group events.
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    The Design of Bank-Tax Interaction and Investment and Financing Decisions for SMEs under the Government’s Policies of Stimulating Investment
    LUO Peng-fei, CHEN Yin-yin, CHEN Biao, CHEN Li-ming
    2022, 30 (8):  12-20.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.0715
    Abstract ( 237 )   PDF (1591KB) ( 592 )   Save
    Bank-tax interaction (BTI, henceforth) is a financial innovation to solve the financing of Small- and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, henceforth) in China. In recent years, BTI is popular, and then, according to statistics, China’s banking financial institutions had issued 1.609 million loans to trustworthy SMEs, totaling 1.57 trillion yuan via BTI by the end of September 2019. Specially, after the COVID-19 epidemic, the State Administration of Taxation, together with the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission, issued a notice that banking financial institutions should make good use of BTI to help SMEs resume production, thereby promote stable economic development. Besides, government also adopts investment subsidy and tax reduction to support SMEs’ development. In order to explore the impact of BTI on SMEs’ investment and financing polices under investment subsidy and tax reduction, respectively, the real-options approach is utilized to study these problems.
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    Study on the Evolutionary Game and Diffusion of Green Smart Port Construction under Government Regulation
    MENG Bin, ZHANG Xin, KUANG Hai-bo, NIU Er-xuan
    2022, 30 (8):  21-35.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.0360
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (3463KB) ( 614 )   Save
    While promoting global economic and trade, ports have brought serious pollution to the global oceans and the atmosphere, and in the meantime a new technological and industrial revolutions are being pushed to their zenith. To this end, the port is facing green reform and smart reform. In the process of port reform, government support is undoubtedly very important, but the importance of government support and the evolutionary path in port reform still need us to explore. In addition, the strength of government support needs to be studied. Based on the dual perspectives of the government and the port, considering the cost of green smart port construction and the influence of government regulation, evolutionary game analysis is performed on the decision-making behavior of both sides of the government and the port, and the evolutionary path of green smart port construction is explored under the government regulation. The main driving factors of green smart port construction are also excavated, and the mutual restriction and coexistence relationship between the government and the port are depicted in the transformation of green smart port. Furthermore, Lotka Volterra model is used for reference to measure the diffusion trend of green smart port, the diffusion situation change of green smart port and ordinary port is depicted by simulating the government’s regulation and control, and the evolution demand of green smart port is reflected, and the limitations of green smart port under the non-government regulation and control are revealed, and the role of government regulation is confirmed in promoting the development of green smart port.
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    Research on Linkage Effect of Large Fluctuations Between International Crude Oil Market and Chinese Stock Market Based on Hawkes Process
    WANG Dong-hua, YAO Yu-wen, WANG Nuan
    2022, 30 (8):  36-43.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1889
    Abstract ( 204 )   PDF (2170KB) ( 582 )   Save
    In this essay, large volatility mutually exciting effect between international crude oil market and Chinese stock market are discussed under the circumstances that the two markets have shown greater synchronicity in terms of volatile events over the past ten years. For example, on August 24, 2015, the global stock market crashed and fell into a precipitous spiral, with the CSI300 index plunging 8.75%. Crude oil prices were hit hard by market concerns that a slower recovery in crude oil demand would exacerbate the global supply glut. Brent crude oil futures plunged 6.56% from the previous trading day. It is of great significance to research the propagation characteristics of large fluctuations between international crude oil market and Chinese stock market from the perspectives of stock market construction, asset allocation and risk prevention. There are some defects in the three traditional research methods on the volatility spill-over effect: Multivariate GARCH Model, Extreme Value Theory and Copula. Hawkes process is a path-dependent random point process, whose core idea is that the occurrence of any event will increase the frequency of subsequent events, but this effect will decay in some form over time. So Hawkes process is a more compatible choice for modeling large volatility mutually exciting effect. The 2-dimensional marked Hawkes process is used to model the self- and mutual-excitation of large fluctuations of Brent crude oil futures and CSI300 index from 2007 to August 15, 2019, after the adjustment of statutory holidays and bilateral exchange rate. It is found that: (1) The Hawkes process can properly describe the single market continuation and cross-market contagion between international crude oil market and Chinese stock market, and capture the aggregation, persistence and spillover of asset returns in time and space. (2) There is a strong self-excitation in both crude oil market and Chinese stock market, respectively. (3) The mutual-exciting effect between the two markets is statistically significant, but weaker in actual impact than the self-excitation.
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    Research on Static Optimal Blockchain Model Based on Insurance Transactions
    WANG Li-zhen, ZHANG Jian-di, WANG Wei
    2022, 30 (8):  44-56.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2021.0457
    Abstract ( 259 )   PDF (3402KB) ( 597 )   Save
    Considering that the integration of blockchain technology and social economy is an irresistible trend, the insurance industry is identified as an important application because of the natural fit of its characteristics and blockchain technology. The insurance transaction process is analyzed based on blockchain technology and constructs a static optimal blockchain model based on the insurance transactions. The following conclusions can be drawn: First, a qualitative analysis shows that the key to applying blockchain technology to insurance is to build an insurance blockchain, that is, to record insurance transactions in the ledger according to certain rules. The follow-up procedures such as reinsurance, surrender, and claim can be automatically realized by updating the digital identity of the subject and object of insurance in the blockchain system with the help of big data system. Second, in the insurance blockchain system, the optimal mining capacity and mining costs can be derived by maximizing the net surplus of honest miners. Concurrently, by calculating the maximum default benefit of the policyholders and insurers, and the optimal mining capacity of the dishonest miners, constraint conditions limiting the bifurcations of blockchain default can be obtained, and the static optimal blockchain model based on insurance transactions can be constructed. Third, the numerical simulation is based on China’s auto insurance business data and interviews from experts. In the benchmark parameter setting, the optimal results of blocksize, average recording time, average transaction fees, and other indicators can be obtained. Meanwhile, the comparative static analysis shows that an increase in the number of insurance transactions, the number of policy block depositors, and the block storage time, as well as a decrease in the risk loss rate, will lead to an increase in the blocksize and a decrease in the insurance transaction recording time and insurance transaction fees, while an increase in external shocks will lead to an increase in the blocksize and a decrease in the insurance transaction recording time, but the impact on insurance transaction fees depends on the balance between the increase in the delivery incentive due to an increase in external shocks and the decrease in the delivery incentive due to restricted blocksize. Based on the research results, policy recommendations are made in terms of insurtech synergy, blockchain system design, and specific scenario practice, while also pointing out some practical problems to be solved.
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    Factors Affecting the Risk Contagion of the Stock Market: An Evidence from Industry-Level Data
    WU Jin-yan, WANG Peng
    2022, 30 (8):  57-68.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.0138
    Abstract ( 255 )   PDF (2924KB) ( 770 )   Save
    Statistics show that the phenomenon of “thousand-share hitting limit down” has appeared for 18 times during the period from June 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017. CoVaR combined with time-varying SJC-Copula method is used to measure the degree of inter-industry risk contagion in the Chinese stock market and test the influential factors on the basis of real linkage and financial linkage. The main results show the inter-industry risk contagion of Chinese stock market is heterogeneity and time-varying. Industries that are closely related to other industries and poor in information transparency are more contagious to other industries. Similarly, industries that are closely related to other industries, poor in information transparency and illiquidity in stocks are more susceptible to risk from other industries. Investor optimism is inversely correlated with risk contagion among industries, which explains the time-varying of risk contagion to some extent.
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    Nonlinear Effects of Financial Inclusion on the Industrial Structure in China: An Empirical Analysis Based on a PSTR Model
    WANG Zheng-xin, LI Dan-dan,
    2022, 30 (8):  69-81.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.1039
    Abstract ( 208 )   PDF (1714KB) ( 571 )   Save
    As an economic policy reform in China, financial inclusion aims to effectively provide financial services for all social classes and groups, thereby exerting positive influences on the development of many economic indices, including industrial structure. Based on the index of financial inclusion (IFI) system proposed by Sarma (2008), the IFI of 31 provinces and autonomous regions in China from 2005 to 2017 is measured. On this basis, the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR) model is used to explore the nonlinear effect of financial inclusion on the industrial structure rationalization (CSR) and industrial structure advancement (CSA). The results show regional differences in the development level of financial inclusion in China during the sample period. The IFIs in the eastern region are significantly higher than those in the central and western regions. Financial inclusion can markedly decrease the degree to which the industrial structure deviates from the economic equilibrium state. At the same time, it significantly promotes the degrees of CSR and CSA.Moreover, this effect shows significant nonlinear characteristics. When the IFI is greater than 0.2402, the promotion effect of the development of financial inclusion on the degree of CSR is gradually strengthened. When the IFI is greater than 0.5914, the promotion effect of the development of financial inclusion on the degree of CSA is strengthened. Meanwhile, there is regional heterogeneity in the industrial structure upgrading of financial inclusion. Financial inclusion has a significant promoting effect on the industrial structure upgrading of eastern and central regions. However, it has no noticeable effect on western regions. In addition, a robustness test was applied to the model by utilizing the system generalized method of moment (GMM), proving that the conclusions remain tenable.
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    Dynamic Game Analysis of Manufacturer RFID Adoption and Retailer Parallel Importation
    DING Long, HU Bin, CHANG Shan
    2022, 30 (8):  82-94.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.2112
    Abstract ( 237 )   PDF (2101KB) ( 571 )   Save
    A dynamic game between a manufacturer and a retailer is investigated in this paper. A supply chain with two separate markets is considered, namely, high-end market H and low-end market L. The manufacturer sells product directly to high-end market H, but indirectly to low-end market L through the retailer. Gray market emerges when a product is parallel imported from low-end market to high-end market by the retailer. In addition to the pricing decisions, the manufacturer decides whether and under what conditions to adopt RFID, and the retailer determines whether to parallel import. Through solving a dynamic game model, several findings are revealed. First, RFID can effectively combat retailer’s parallel importation. In the absence of RFID, retailer’s parallel importation always decreases manufacturer’s profits. However, in the presence of RFID, it not only reduces the negative of parallel importation on manufacturer, but also makes manufacturer benefit from parallel importation under some conditions. Second, although RFID can deter retailer’s parallel importation, the manufacturer does not always adopt it. When the market disparity between high-end market and low-end market is sufficient small, the manufacturer does not adopt RFID. When the market disparity is moderate, the manufacturer adopts RFID if the RFID penalty effect is relatively strong or RFID penalty effect is relatively weak and RFID cost effect is moderate. When the market disparity is sufficient large, the manufacturer adopts RFID if the RFID penalty cost is high or RFID unit cost is high or both. Finally, it is explored that the impacts of RFID and parallel importation have two sides. Parallel importation increases social welfare in the case of without adopting RFID. While in the case of with adopting RFID, parallel importation increases social welfare only under certain conditions, which implies that parallel importation may be harmful to social welfare once the manufacturer adopts RFID.
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    Differential Game and Coordination Model for Green Supply Chain Based on Green Technology R&D
    CHENG Su-su, ZHANG Fan, LI Dong-dong
    2022, 30 (8):  95-105.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1886
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (1253KB) ( 857 )   Save
    Determining an optimal wholesale price is of importance to a firm composed of a single manufacturer and retailer since it significantly affects the decision-making of each profit center and then the firm’s profit. In this paper, the effect of different strategies on the profits of each center and the firm is investigated based on a differential game among members of the green supply chain, i.e., centralized scenario and decentralized scenario. The manufacturer is responsible for providing green products and sells these products to end customers through the retailer who controls the retail price.
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    Research on the Dynamic Supplier Selection and Lot-sizing by Considering Different Modes Dealing with Carbon Emission
    DONG Qian-dong, LI Min
    2022, 30 (8):  106-116.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.2031
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (2260KB) ( 708 )   Save
    As one of the main sources of indirect carbon emissions, suppliers are a significant part of the carbon emissions of the whole supply chain. On the other hand, as the starting point of the supply chain, the selection of suppliers is directly related to the benefits and market competitiveness of downstream manufacturers. However, few literatures consider carbon emission in supplier selection decision. Further, some important factors, including the types of purchased products, uncertain customer demands, and carbon emission, have not been simultaneously studied in dealing with dynamic supplier selection problems. Therefore two carbon emission regulations, including carbon cap-and-trade and carbon tax, are considered in the process of solving dynamic supplier selection and lot-sizing decision problems. The calculation of carbon emissions is related to several factors, including vehicle loads, fuel, and distance and so on. In addition, being confronted with uncertain market demand and changing inventory, how to choose suppliers, how to allocate orders, how much to purchase at different times and how to minimize supply chain cost under different carbon emission regulations are the main problems to be solved in this paper. By means of optimality theory, a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is formulated to explore the dynamic supplier selection and procurement lot-sizing decision by different modes dealing with carbon emission in the case of multi-period, multi-supplier, multi-product and uncertain demand. Analysis is made to different modes dealing with carbon emission including carbon tax and carbon cap-and-trade. In order to solve complex large-scale problems in a short time, a modified discrete particle swarm optimization(MDPSO)is proposed by designing mutation operator and perturbation factor and is compared with several commonly-used improved particle swarm optimization. Then exact method, approximate method and improved heuristic method are applied to solve the mixed integer programming problem of different scales and analysis is made to compare them. Finally, numerical examples are given to verify validity and feasibility of the model proposed. The empirical results show that different modes of carbon emission treatment have different effects on supply chain management decision-making. Carbon tax can be used as a tool to effectively control total carbon emissions without significantly increasing the total cost of the supply chain. Under carbon cap-and-trade mode, it is found that the change of carbon cap has no effect on carbon emission. Carbon trading price can be used as a regulatory tool to balance the total cost and carbon emissions of the supply chain. Furthermore, the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm proposed(MDPSO)in this paper can solve the problem of large-scale supplier selection and procurement lot-sizing in a short time at the expense of solution accuracy to a small extent(less than 2%). In practice, the research can be used as a tool for enterprises to make quantitative decision, which theoretically enriches supplier selection and procurement lot-sizing decision.
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    Dynamic Decentralized Resource-constrained Multi-Project Scheduling Problem with Transfer Times Based on Auction Mechanism
    LIU Wan-jun, ZHANG Jing-wen, LIU Wan-lin
    2022, 30 (8):  117-129.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.0687
    Abstract ( 177 )   PDF (2862KB) ( 444 )   Save
    In practice, enterprises often implement multiple projects that are geographically dispersed in parallel. The implementation of these projects requires both shared enterprise resources and exclusive local resources. In the context of this kind of multi-project management, the decentralized resource-constrained multi-project scheduling problem (DRCMPSP) is proposed. In DRCMPSP, the frequent transfers of limited global resources among dispersed sub-projects often consume a lot of times, which have a great impact on the schedule of multiple projects. However, existing studies usually assume that resources can be transferred instantaneously, and the scheduling schemes in this case are often not feasible in the actual project implementation process. In this paper, the decentralized resource-constrained multi-project scheduling problem with transfer times (DRCMPSPTT) is studied based on dynamic multi-project environment. Different from the static project environment in the previous literatures, the continuous arrival and unpredictable arrival time of new projects are considered in this paper. The dynamic DRCMPSPTT consisted of several single projects that arrived over time, and these single projects are independent of each other. The finish-to-start precedence relationships with zero-lag existed only between the activities of a single-project. The execution of activities required several types of global and local resources, and the transfers of the global resources among different projects consumed times. The goal of DRCMSPSTT is to minimize the average project delay of multiple projects under the constraints of the priority relationship between the activities and the constraints of local and global resources limit. In view of the dynamic environment, the DRCMPSPTT model is built based on multi-agent system, and an auction mechanism with time windows is designed. The distributed multi-agent system based on auction with time windows (DMAS/ATW, in short) could allocate global resources for multiple projects under the dual constraints of the amounts of global resources and the transfer times. By solving a concrete DRCMPSPTT example, the dynamic scheduling process of DMAS/ATW algorithm is analyzed in detail.And numerical experiments are carried out based on the DRCMPSP instances in multi-project scheduling problem library MPSPLIB.The experimental results show that the average project delay obtained by DMAS/ATW algorithm can be reduced by up to 42% and 26% on average compared with that obtained by DMAS/RIA algorithm in relevant literature when there is no resource transfer time constraint. Moreover, for 1/3 instance sets, the results of DMAS/ATW algorithm with resource transfer time constraint are better than those of DMAS/RIA algorithm without the resource transfer time constraint, which verifies the superiority of DMAS/ATW algorithm in this paper. The experimental analysis of the size and global resource utilization factor of the instances shows that the DMAS/ATW algorithm has good adaptability to the examples with different scales and resource constraints degree. The research problem and methods in this paper provid reference value for the future research of multi-project scheduling problem in dynamic environment.
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    Is There A “Quality Bridge” in the Dynamic Evolution of the Retail Service Supply Chain?
    LI Jian-fei, SUN Meng-xia, LI Bei
    2022, 30 (8):  130-142.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.2139
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (4032KB) ( 624 )   Save
    The role of quality of service in the retail supply chain is the focus of academic circles in recent years. Based on the existence of “quality bridge” in the dynamic evolution of retail service supply chain, the service quality Prediction model of retail service supply chain is verified by Markov chain model, which verifies the objective existence of steady state distribution of service quality, and takes the retail service supply chain led by HJ Retail enterprises in China as an empirical sample, Based on the system Dynamics model, this paper analyzes the interaction characteristics and system causal correlation between three quality behavior subsystems of functional service providers, retail service integrators and consumer customers, and probes into the cooperative mechanism of “quality bridge” in the dynamic evolution of retail service supply chain.
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    Research on the Location-Distribution Problem of Distribution Centers Based on “Self-operating + Outsourcing” Mode Under Uncertain Demands
    LI Zhen-ping, YI Ming-chao
    2022, 30 (8):  143-154.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.0305
    Abstract ( 261 )   PDF (1607KB) ( 615 )   Save
    In order to determine the locations of distribution centers and the quantity of stocks to be prepared ahead of time in each distribution center under uncertain demands of customers, the location-distribution problem with stochastic demand based on the “self-operating + outsourcing” distribution mode is proposed. A two-stage continuous stochastic programming model is established, the goal is to minimize the total costs including the fixed operating cost of distribution centers, the self-operating distribution cost from supply to the distribution centers, the inventory holding cost in the distribution centers, the expected self-operating distribution cost from distribution center to the customs, the outsourcing distribution cost and the shortage cost of customers. In the first stage, the locations of the self-operating distribution centers and the quantity of stocks to be prepared ahead of time in each distribution center are determined; In the second stage, the quantity of self-operating transportation and outsourcing transportation under the given scenario are respectively determined so as to minimize the sum of distribution cost and the shortage cost. Because it is difficult to solve the continuous stochastic programming model directly, the samples average approximation method based on Monte Carlo sampling simulation is proposed. The L-shaped algorithm for solving large-scale stochastic programming model is designed. The superiority of the two-stage stochastic programming model and the effectiveness of the samples average approximation algorithm are verified by simulation examples; Finally, the sensitivity analysis are done on the fixed operation cost of distribution center, the unit cost of self-operating distribution and the unit cost of outsourcing distribution. The optimal distribution strategies corresponding to various range of parameters value are obtained. The results show that, the “self-operating + outsourcing” distribution mode is the best strategy under most cases. The main contribution of this paper is that both the decision variables of the distribution centers location and the quantity of stock to be prepared ahead of time in each distribution center are included in the first stage of the stochastic programming model, which can help the enterprises to make more reasonable decisions, so as to reduce the total costs, shorten the delivery time and improve the customer’s satisfaction. d algorithm of this paper is efficifent for solving large-scale two-stage stochastic programming model, and can be extended to solving more complexity stochastic programming model. The model and algorithm of this paper can not only be used to solve the location-distribution problem of distribution center under the “self-operating + outsourcing” distribution mode, but also can help the E-commerce enterprises to detemine the quantity of goods to be transportated to the pre-warehouse near by the customers with uncertainty demands,so as to reduce response time for customers demand.
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    Research on Two-Echelon Vehicle Routing for Scarce Emergency Relief Supply Dispatching
    SU Bing, ZHOU Jia-qi, LIN Guo-hui, JI Hao, XU Yang
    2022, 30 (8):  155-163.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.0504
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (1776KB) ( 604 )   Save
    Emergency relief supply dispatching is an important issue after the sudden disaster. For the practical case that emergency rescue materials are in short supply and cannot meet the needs of all demand points, a multi-objective Two-Echelon emergency relief supply dispatching vehicle routing model which is the nonlinear programming model is built to find an optimal solution with the aim of minimizing both the maximum shortage of each demand point and total distribution cost. Then, an approximation algorithm GA is designed with the time complexity O(n3), the upper and lower bounder of the approximation ratio is analyzed and the approximation ratio is measured by instances. The approximation ratio which closes to 1 means that the approximation performance of the algorithm is better. Further, the influencing factors of the approximate ratio is analyzed, along with the finding that the more of the number of satellites, the supplies in the depot and the capacity of primary vehicles and secondary vehicles, the less of the number of customers, the better of the algorithm effectiveness. Finally, by comparing the results of the algorithm GA with the results of genetic algorithm, the effectiveness of the algorithm GA is proved.
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    Retailer’s Pricing and Service Strategies under Consumer Value Co-creation for Co-produced Product
    WANG Jun-bin, , FAN Xiao-jun
    2022, 30 (8):  164-172.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.0130
    Abstract ( 216 )   PDF (1302KB) ( 521 )   Save
    The model of customer participation in value co-creation has gradually become an important tool for firms to attract consumers.Under this model, consumers are required to provide value in a production process for goods or services. An analytical model is constructed under the background of customer participation in co-production with value co-creation, and studies retailers’ pricing and service strategies by capturing key features such as customer participation preference, co-production complexity, co-production effect and hassle effect.
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    Sales Mode Selection and Coordination for an O2O Fresh Produce Supply Chain when Freshness-Keeping Effort Affecting Demand
    TIAN Yu, DAN Bin, LIU Mo-lin, MA Song-xuan
    2022, 30 (8):  173-184.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1602
    Abstract ( 340 )   PDF (1887KB) ( 690 )   Save
    With the rapid development of e-commerce and the increasing demand of residents for online purchase of fresh products, fresh e-commerce platforms have developed rapidly in recent years. The fresh e-commerce platform provides value-added service to promote the online sales of fresh produce. At the same time, many fresh e-commerce platforms have cooperated with offline retailers to complete the last mile delivery of fresh produce, which forming an O2O fresh products supply chain with “purchase online, distribute offline”. There are two sales modes between the fresh e-commerce platform and the offline retailer, wholesale mode and commission mode, respectively. Different sales modes may cause differences in the pricing, value-added service, and freshness-keeping effort, thereby affecting the profits of fresh e-commerce platform and the retailer. Moreover, the cooperation mode chosen by the fresh e-commerce may not be the most beneficial to the supply chain, and may reduce the supply chain performance. To solve this problem, we study the problem of the sales mode selection and coordination of the O2O fresh supply chain considering freshness-keeping effort and value-added service.
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    Evolutionary Game Analysis of Local Governments and Enterprises under Nitrogen Reduction Policies Participating in Emission Trading in River Basin
    ZHANG Ji-xiang, XI Xuan
    2022, 30 (8):  185-195.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1498
    Abstract ( 211 )   PDF (2987KB) ( 572 )   Save
    In view of the aggravation of the current problem of nitrogen pollution in the river basin, the dynamic evolution process of the local government’s supervision strategy and the enterprise’s nitrogen emission reduction strategy selection under static and dynamic subsidy policies wasinvestigated based onthe evolutionary game method. The local government and enterprises with bounded rationality participating in the pollution emission trading mechanism are regarded as game players. In present study, the influence of various parameters on the equilibrium point is analyzed under the dynamic subsidy policies, and finally simulation analysis is carried out. The results show that under the static subsidy mechanism, the system has four stable evolutionary strategies and cyclical fluctuations in one situation. Enterprises' choice of emission reduction strategy is mainly based on the comparison between the cost and benefit of nitrogen emission reduction, and whether the government regulates or not is mainly determined by the comparison between the cost of public opinion and the cost of supervision, subsidy and other factors. When the local government implements the dynamic subsidy mechanism, the evolutionary trajectory of both sides of the game will converge to the only mixed strategy equilibrium point.
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    The Evolutionary Game of Three Parties Participating in the Promotion of Regional Brands of Agricultural Products
    LI Xin-jian, YANG Hong, ZENG Ling, LI Xiao-ling
    2022, 30 (8):  196-209.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2021.0740
    Abstract ( 236 )   PDF (3056KB) ( 323 )   Save
    The construction of regional brands of agricultural products plays an important role in rural revitalization. How to improve regional brands of agricultural products has always been the hot issue of attention of all parties. The evolutionary game method is used to discuss how each participant makes strategic choices in different scenarios in the process of promoting regional brands of agricultural products, and numerical simulation is used to analyze relevant conclusions. The research results show that the evolutionary stabilization strategy is affected by government subsidies, rewards, benefits and costs; appropriate subsidies are conducive to the participation of the three parties, that is, agricultural product manufacturers improve product quality, brand operating companies actively operate, and local governments strictly supervise; brand operating companies’ rewards to enterprises should be within a reasonable range, at the same time, higher-level governments increase rewards to local governments, which is also conducive to the participation of the three parties; reducing participation costs and increasing participation benefits are conducive to motivating agricultural product manufacturers and brand operating companies to participate enhance regional brands of agricultural products. This research has certain theoretical and practical guidance for improving the regional brands of agricultural products.
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    Two-echelon Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem with Request Forecasting
    GE Xian-long, WEN Peng-zhe, XUE Gui-qin
    2022, 30 (8):  210-220.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1917
    Abstract ( 288 )   PDF (2663KB) ( 412 )   Save
    E-commerce transactions have broken through the restrictions on commodity trading imposed by traditional trading channels such as time, space and region, and its platforms have attracted more and more consumers with many advantages such as abundant commodities, cheap prices, convenient payment and fast information update. However, e-commerce logistics is famous for its complexity of diversified commodities, dispersed customers, and massive dynamic demand. The links and processes of logistics distribution are very complex. Although the e-commerce platform and logistics enterprises jointly set up the logistics distribution system, tens of millions of express parcels are rushing to the end link of urban distribution in the face of holiday promotion. The lack of effective resource allocation and the last kilometer of collaborative operation of distribution cannot timely respond to the massive distribution demand at the end link.
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    The Impact of Undisclosed Sale Price on Presale Strategies when New Products Launch
    DU Li, HUO Yu-jie, SONG Jin-mei
    2022, 30 (8):  221-230.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1424
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (1824KB) ( 194 )   Save
    Presale is a sellingmechanism where manufactures allow consumers to book their products in advance before the new products launch to market. With the development of Internet and technology, advance selling is widely used in the launch of many new products, i.e. smart phones, music, video, games and services. However, presale mechanisms are applied in different way. Two different presale scenarios are considered in this paper.-where the future sales price of new products is disclosed and undisclosed in the presale period—and examines in which one the manufacturers can gain more profits. It establishes a two-period game model of advance selling for new products and fixed-price for the original products simultaneously. It discusses the optimal purchase strategies of consumers and shows that some consumers who don’t buy new products because of high price would like to pre-order products for the price discount. Based on the consumers’ purchases strategies, it discusses the manufactures’ profits and presale strategies under the two presale scenarios: when the future sale price of new products after advance selling is disclosed and undisclosed. Finally, it considers the effects of some factors on the manufacturers’profits and presale strategies by numerical analysis. It concludes that the manufacturers can gain more expected profits when the future sale price of new products in the presale period is disclosed.
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    Government Subsidy Strategies of Fresh Products Considering Capital Constraints under Uncertain Demand
    ZHU Jiang-hua, ZHANG Xu-mei, DAN Bin, LIU Mo-lin, MA Song-xuan
    2022, 30 (8):  231-242.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1824
    Abstract ( 184 )   PDF (2043KB) ( 308 )   Save
    Due to the characteristics of fresh products such as perishability and short life cycle, as well as the uncertainty of market demand, the operation of fresh products supply chain is more complicated. Therefore, “difficult to sell vegetables, expensive to buy vegetables”, “dull of sale”, “in short supply” has been a hot news. For example, domestic pork prices continued to rise sharply in 2019 due to a pig epidemic in Africa. To effectively control prices and increase supply, more than 2 billion yuan in special fiscal subsidies had been distributed in 29 provinces by the end of August. The typical way of subsidy is sale subsidy and purchase subsidy. Different subsidy methods have significant differences on fresh products suppliers, sellers, consumers and the government, and the fiscal budget restricts the choice of government subsidy strategies.
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    Research of Pull Effect of Conformity Context Representation on Information Sharing Behavior in Brand Crisis
    YANG Chang-zheng
    2022, 30 (8):  243-253.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1763
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (2191KB) ( 218 )   Save
    Owing to the extensive use of online media and the fragmentation of its information and its other characteristics, crisis information has been sharing widely under the influence of herd effect after the brand crisis appears. In order to grasp the herd effect factors and action mechanism of brand crisis information sharing behavior, and formulate relatively effective monitoring and prevention measure, the impulse response and marginal impact of conformity situation representation and brand crisis information sharing behavior in cyberspace is studied in the paper. Sina Weibo in China is taken as the online platform research sample, 66 crisis events covering brands of seven industries such as food and medicine, which occurred between 2010 and 2019, are selected as the source of brand crisis information, and the official API and web crawler method are used for data collection to obtain 376492 combination of valid data on the total number of reposts, comments, and the number of reposts and comments. Vector autoregression (VAR) and state space model (Sspace) are used to analyze the impulse response and marginal impact between conformity situation representation and brand crisis information sharing behavior. It is found that: (1) There is significant positive causal relationship between conformity situation representation and information sharing behavior in cyberspace; (2) More obvious lagging effect is exerted by conformity situation representation on comment behavior than on reposting behavior, but there is a long lag period on reposting behavior,that is, there is a long tail effect; (3) Greater influence is exerted by the total number of information reposts than by the total number of comments on the user’s reposting behavior, greater influence is exerted by the total number of information comments than by the total number of reposts on the user’s commenting behavior,that is, there is greater herd effect between similar behavior;(4)There are structural differences in the herd effects of brand crisis information sharing behaviors among different fields and among different years.Through model construction and analysis, it is shown that the network conformity situation representation in the brand crisis has a long-tailed volatility effect on the crisis information sharing behavior, which can provide a theoretical basis for the discrimination, classification and handling of the network user’s conformity behavior, thus preventing the conformity situation representation from promoting repost and comment behavior which can lead to the rapid spread of crisis information and the formation of public opinion risks.
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    A Periodic Optimization Model and Solution for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Dynamic Requests
    LI Yang, FAN Hou-ming, ZHANG Xiao-nan
    2022, 30 (8):  254-266.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1495
    Abstract ( 245 )   PDF (2461KB) ( 403 )   Save
    Capacitated vehicle routing problem with dynamic requests (CVRPDR) is one important variant of vehicle routing problem (VRP), in which not all customers are known in advance, but are revealed as the system progresses. In CVRPDR, routes must be reconfigured dynamically while executing the current simulation. Considering the dynamic characteristic of customers information, a real-time rescheduling strategy which based on the idea of periodic optimization is presented to solve dynamic optimization problems. And according to receding horizon control the whole working time of distribution center is divided into time slices, then CVRPDR can realize periodic optimization for sub-problem of each time slice. In addition, the service delay mechanism based on vehicle starting delay coefficient is applied to constrain behaviors of vehicle distribution. By means of service delay mechanism, additional original customers and new dynamic customers can be utilized to implement rescheduling of sub paths when vehicle capacity and time constraints are satisfied. In this paper, CVRPDR is solved while using a metaheuristic algorithm based on variable neighborhood search and artificial bee colony algorithm that tries to increase both diversity and the capability to escape from local optima. And information such as optimal routing scheme and customer node status will be transmitted along time slices. The effect of vehicle starting delay coefficient perturbation upon the system is discussed by means of sensitivity analysis. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by comparing its results with those of existing methods in the literature on a popular set of benchmark instances. The proposed algorithm can efficiently optimize the dynamic problems and provide highly competitive solution on both the best and average results.
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    Study on Pricing and Green Input Decision of Dual-channel Green Supply Chain Based on Risk Aversion of Members
    XIONG Feng, WEI Yao-yao, WANG Qiong-lin, LI Zhi-yuan, SHAO Le
    2022, 30 (8):  267-276.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2020.2336
    Abstract ( 278 )   PDF (2182KB) ( 418 )   Save
    Chinese economy is stepping forward from the stage of high-speed growth to the stage of high-quality development, and green development has become the indispensable requirement of high-quality development. With the proposal of the national goal of ‘carbon neutrality’ and ‘emission peak’, the green development of enterprises is facing unprecedented opportunities. Green supply chain has become an important source of competitive advantage. How to promote the green development of supply chain has become an important issue to be solved by industry and academia. Due to the great uncertainty of market demand, supply chain members show risk aversion preference, which affects the level of green technology investment and pricing decisions. In the current research about dual channel supply chain,however,there are few studies on this phenomenon this study effectively makes up for the lack of this research.
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    The Effect of Online Reputation on Consumer Attention: Based on the Empirical Analysis of DianPing.com
    ZHANG Yan-hui, GAO Yun-fan
    2022, 30 (8):  277-286.  doi: 10.16381/j.cnki.issn1003-207x.2019.1153
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (1084KB) ( 540 )   Save
    Online reputation level represents the attitude of consumers towards products and reflects the business performance. For potential consumers, how does online reputation affect their attention,and whether it can effectively attract customers for merchants? Based on the data of Dianping.com, the online reputation level of merchants by the star level, and the attention of consumers by the number of total clicks are measured, so as to build the impact of online reputation level on the attention of consumers. Results show that the influence of online reputation level and consumer attention has an inverted U-shaped curve. The herd effect is used to explain the following behavior of consumers. After the rational herd effect takes the lead, the continuous improvement of reputation has a restraining effect on the attention of consumers, and the product attributes and store attributes of restaurants have a regulating effect. The conclusion of this study has reference value for both consumers and businesses.
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